Well since you've got output from a fortran program, I assumed you were familiar with the process of making a script/program. Python is a pretty high-level language, by which I mean it is relatively simple to read/understand and write.
To my knowledge, Maya doesn't have any built in "functions" to read particle location data. It is not that type of software. Declaring variables as you say, doesn't happen in Maya either, except if you create a script. Creating 100 particles and setting the location of one particle at one time is pretty simple. I don't have maya here right now, but I can see about that when I get home. However, reading in your data file might be more difficult. I don't know the best way to approach that.