I'm still learning dynamics, but I don't think it can be done. I think alienscience is correct that it would have to be a collision event.
From Maya's help:
You can also make particles split, emit new particles, die, or run a MEL script when they collide with geometry.
Either that or maybe it could be with MEL... but I haven't even dipped my toe in that yet.
"If you love your job, you'll never work another day in your life."